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Tag Archives: Java

Constrained Cubic Spline Interpolation in Java

Representation of numeric data is a very common problem. On PC we usually use different data visualisation software from Microsoft Excel or OpenOffice Calc to more advanced utilities for charting, such as QtPlot or Origin. These apps are designed for processing of data and you can easily draw a printable scatter plot or a pie chart. But what if you need to draw a plot in your own application?

Example of charts in CardioMood

There are plenty of libraries that can draw different kinds of charts. To draw charts in the web, you might use Google Charts API, or jQuery Flot for example. In my Android app, I use GraphView and ShinobiCharts.

Spline overshoot example

Line charts look nice when they are smooth. The most popular way to make your chart look smooth is to apply a cubic spline interpolation. This type of interpolation is very common and you have it already implemented in many open source mathematic libraries. However a simple cubic spline has a few flaws.

The result function is smooth (it is actually very smooth – twice continuously differentiable), but it tends to overshoot, especially in places where you don’t expect. This is illustrated in the picture above. When we draw a line chart, we usually have some knowledge about the process we are trying to visualise. For instance, the resulting function must be monotonic, or the function value should never be negative. If this information is critical, we must use more advanced interpolation algorithms.

If the function is monotonic, in Android you can just use MonotoneCubicSpline:

import android.util.Spline;

float x[] = ...
float y[[] = ...
Spline f = Spline.createMonotoneCubicSpline(x, y);

// this will evaluate y0 = f(x0)
float y0 = f.interpolate(x0);

If we want to avoid overshoot for an arbitrary function, we should find some other interpolation algorithm. One of the methods is called Constrained Cubic Spline Interpolation. It was proposed by CJC Kruger in his article:

The algorithms is based on a classic cubic spline algorithm. The key step in it is the calculation of the slope (first derivative) at each point. Intuitively, the slope will be between the slopes of the adjacent straight lines (can be a mean value of the two slopes), but it also should approach zero if the slope of either line approaches zero.

Unfortunately, I couldn’t find an implementation of the algorithm in Java. That’s why I decided to implement Constrained Spline for my project.

I use Apache Commons Math library. To make the interpolation compatible with my project, I’ve overridden UnivariateInterpolator class. Here is a full code of my implementation.

import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.interpolation.UnivariateInterpolator;
import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.polynomials.PolynomialFunction;
import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.polynomials.PolynomialSplineFunction;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.DimensionMismatchException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NonMonotonicSequenceException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NumberIsTooSmallException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.util.LocalizedFormats;
import org.apache.commons.math3.util.MathArrays;

 * Constrained Spline Interpolation algorithm (CJC Kruger).
 * Source:
 * Created by Anton Danshin on 24/12/14.
public class ConstrainedSplineInterpolator implements UnivariateInterpolator {

    public PolynomialSplineFunction interpolate(double x[], double y[])
            throws DimensionMismatchException, NumberIsTooSmallException, NonMonotonicSequenceException
        if (x.length != y.length) {
            throw new DimensionMismatchException(x.length, y.length);

        if (x.length < 3) {
            throw new NumberIsTooSmallException(LocalizedFormats.NUMBER_OF_POINTS,
                    x.length, 3, true);

        // Number of intervals.  The number of data points is n + 1.
        final int n = x.length - 1;


        // Differences between knot points
        final double dx[] = new double[n];
        final double dy[] = new double[n];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            dx[i] = x[i + 1] - x[i];
            dy[i] = y[i + 1] - y[i];

        final double f1[] = new double[n+1]; // F'(x[i])
        for (int i=1; i<n; i++) {
            double slope = dy[i-1]*dy[i];
            if (slope > 0d) {
                // doesn't change sign
                f1[i] = 2d / (dx[i]/dy[i] + dx[i-1]/dy[i-1]);
            } else if (slope <= 0d) {
                // changes sign
                f1[i] = 0d;
        f1[0] = 3d * dy[0] / (2d * (dx[0])) - f1[1]/2d;
        f1[n] = 3d * dy[n-1] / (2d * (dx[n-1])) - f1[n-1]/2d;

        // cubic spline coefficients -- a contains constants, b is linear, c quadratic, d is cubic
        final double a[] = new double[n+1];
        final double b[] = new double[n+1];
        final double c[] = new double[n+1];
        final double d[] = new double[n+1];

        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            final double f2a = - 2d * (f1[i] + 2 * f1[i-1]) / dx[i-1] + 6d * dy[i-1] / (dx[i-1]*dx[i-1]);
            final double f2b = 2d * (2d * f1[i] + f1[i-1]) / dx[i-1] - 6d * dy[i-1] / (dx[i-1]*dx[i-1]);
            d[i] = (f2b - f2a) / (6d * dx[i-1]);
            c[i] = (x[i] * f2a - x[i-1] * f2b) / (2d * dx[i-1]);
            b[i] = (dy[i-1] -
                    c[i] * (x[i]*x[i] - x[i-1]*x[i-1]) -
                    d[i] * (x[i]*x[i]*x[i] - x[i-1]*x[i-1]*x[i-1])
            ) / dx[i-1];
            a[i] = y[i-1] - b[i]*x[i-1] - c[i]*x[i-1]*x[i-1] - d[i]*x[i-1]*x[i-1]*x[i-1];

        final PolynomialFunction polynomials[] = new PolynomialFunction[n];
        final double coefficients[] = new double[4];
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            coefficients[0] = a[i];
            coefficients[1] = b[i];
            coefficients[2] = c[i];
            coefficients[3] = d[i];
            final double x0 = x[i-1];
            polynomials[i-1] = new PolynomialFunction(coefficients) {
                public double value(double x) {
                    // bypass the standard Apache Commons behavior
                    return super.value(x + x0);

        return new PolynomialSplineFunction(x, polynomials);


Feel free to use this in your own code! 🙂

[Java] [Vimeo] Generating a direct download link to Vimeo clip

Recently, I’ve been looking into ways of playing video streams on Android. Fortunately, with it’s VideoView you can play any video clip easily no matter where the actual file is. All you need is to provide a URL to the video file. With VideoView I managed to play the video even on my friend’s old HTC Desire S with its antient Android 2.3.5! At the end of the article you will find a link to a good article on how to play video in Android using VideoView component.

But soon I found out that I couldn’t play a youtube or vimeo video clip simply because I didn’t have a direct link to the video stream. Unfortunately, for some security reasons doesn’t provide a download links. But if the video can be shown on the website, it can be downloaded. There’s always a way to do it.

On the internet, there were a lot of discussions about this and I found a solution (for PHP language) to my problem on StackOverflow. I implemented it, but a couple of days ago it suddenly stopped working. Turned out that Vimeo changed the markup of the page and old solutions became not applicable anymore.

I did some investigation into the new markup and came up with the following solution. Read more of this post

[Java] Worker thread – thread-safe processing items one by one

Often we face the problem of online collecting and handling some data, abtained from various external systems and devices. In some cases it is more convenient to execute the processing code in a different thread. Here is how I usually solve this problem.

Assume the data are divided into chunks which are obtained one by one. The following class contains all necessary logic to process these chunks (*** updated according to the improvements suggested by Valeriy Ovchinnikov).

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public abstract class WorkerThread<T> extends Thread {

    public static final long TIMEOUT = 200;
    private final BlockingQueue<T> queue = new LinkedBlockingQueue();

    public void run() {
        while (!isInterrupted()) {
            try {
                T item = queue.poll(TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
                if (!isInterrupted() && item != null) {
            } catch (InterruptedException ex) {

    public void put(T e) {

    public abstract void processItem(T item);

All you need is to extend this class and implement its abstract method processItem(T item). The example of it follows.

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public abstract class WorkerThread extends Thread {

    public static final long TIMEOUT = 200;
    private final BlockingQueue queue = new LinkedBlockingQueue();

    public void run() {
        while (!isInterrupted()) {
            try {
                T item = queue.poll(TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
                if (!isInterrupted() && item != null) {
            } catch (InterruptedException ex) {

    public void put(T e) {

    public abstract void processItem(T item);

To use this class you need to create and start the thread and call put() whenever you want to process next data item.

HRDBWorker hrDBWorker = new HRDBWorker();

Hopefully, this is the useful piece of code. You are welcome to comment.

Java REST client for Android

In one of my previous posts I told you that I started learning how to code for Android, and created my first Android app. But most of mobile apps are useless when they do not exploit the advantages of the Internet. That is why in order to create a good application you should know how to use the power of the Internet in your app.

There are different ways of how your application is interacting with the Internet and its resources, for instance an app can download data, connect to remote databases, but the most popular way of interaction is RESTful services  (in the development of mobile apps). It just works more effectively than SOAP when the bandwidth is limited.

In this article I’ll show briefly how to create a client for a RESTful service in Android (this should also work in any device supporting Java). Read more of this post

JSF Helper Class

When creating web-sites with JSF you often use the same patterns of code. Here are the examples:

// add faces message to Faces Context
FacesContext ctx = FacesContext.getCurrentInstance();
ctx.addMessage(null, new FacesMessage(FacesMessage.FacesMesssage.SEVERITY_INFO,
                                     "Login successful.", "Welcome! You are now signed in."));
// redirect
FacesContext ctx = FacesContext.getCurrentInstance();
NavigationHandler handler = ctx.getApplication().getNavigationHandler();
handler.handleNavigation(ctx, null, "home");
// obtain http session
FacesContext ctx = FacesContext.getCurrentInstance();
HttpServletRequest request = (HttpServletRequest) ctx.getExternalContext().getRequest();
HttpSession session = (HttpSession) request.getSession(true);

This leads to repeating the code and also makes it more difficult to write the tests to the code.
I think it is a good idea to create a helper-class which will do all these operations with faces context under the hood and provide very simple and useful API. Read more of this post

[Java Web] [QapTcha] How to add captcha to JSF page

If you want to have prevent spam in your website, you probably need to use captcha.

CAPTCHA (play /ˈkæp.tʃə/) is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a human being. The process usually involves a computer asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to grade. (Wikipedia)

Early CAPTCHAs such as these, generated by the...

You can see the examples of captchas on the pictures. Captcha is intended to protect the web site from spam, and it helps to avoid “unwanted” registrations, block robots. But it can also deter some “proper” users. As for me, I hate recognizing captchas!

What we need is a simple and user-friendly mechanism to detect robot. Fortunately there are plenty of different solutions for captchas on the internet!

Take a look at QapTcha – a simple, easy-to-use and intuitive captcha system. It needs human action instead of to read a hard text and it is a very lightweight jQuery plugin.

QapTcha Demo Screenshot

All you need is to drag the button from one side to another, and that makes it perfect for mobile devices.

Here I will show you an example of how we can embed this captcha into JSF web-application.

Read more of this post

[JSF 2] [Overriding Renderer] How to add custom attributes to component

I’ve been working with JSF for almost a year, and sometimes standard components are not enough for rendering rich  HTML5  pages.

For example, if we need to have a placeholder attribute on a particular HTML5 input element, we just write:

<input type="text" name="login" value="" placeholder="User name"/>

Unfortunately, standard JSF 2 library’s component InputText was designed for HTML4 and doesn’t support attribute ‘placeholder’ (as well as other non-standard attributes, such as ‘autofocus’, ‘autocomplete’). So, the following code won’t work because the ‘placeholder’ attribute will be ignored by standard JSF TextRenderer.

<h:inputText value="#{loginBean.login}" placeholder="User name"/>

What if we really need to have placeholder in our input components? One solution would be using third-party libraries, such as PrimeFaces, or RichFaces. The provide placeholder (they call it ‘Water Mark’) and a lot of other features out of the box.

This solution has its drawbacks. Third-party libraries (like PrimeFaces) are quite difficult to cusomize, for the one thing. Besides, they have got their own issues and may not work as we expect. Also, sometimes in some projects we are not able to use these libraries.

We used PrimeFaces 3.1.1 library in our project Reshaka.Ru, and the library really disappointed me. File Upload component doesn’t work properly, dialogs are incorrectly rendered in most browsers. There are many bugs, and it seems to me that PrimeFaces team is not going to fix them. That’s why in our future projects, I won’t use it.

Let’s get back to the main point. 🙂 In order to add custom attribute, we can override standart JSF component Renderer.

Read more of this post

[Java] [Glassfish 3] Wrong character encoding in multipart servlet request


It’s been a long time since I posted here, but I’m currently very busy with my study, work and projects.
Recently we had a problem with processing multipart HTTP requests in Java servlet. We are using Glassfish 3.1.1 as application server. The thing is despite of the fact that HTTP request had UTF-8 encoding, all string data actually were in ISO-8859-1 (a.k.a. ISO-LATIN-1).

I tried several different approaches to set encoding to UTF-8… until I came across the following: As I understood, It says that there is a known issue in Glassfish 3.1.2 with incorrect interpretation of character encoding of multipart HTTP request parameters. Instead of UTF-8 it applies ISO-8859-1 ignoring settings in configuration files (web.xml, glassfish-web.xml) and in HTTP request. Turns out, this issue also affects Glassfish 3.1.1, which is used in our project.

Read more of this post

The Magic of 42

Hi there!

It’s been quite a long time since I posted here (more than one month). Honestly, I was really busy and there were some problems with the Internet in my dorm.

The month was full of events!

Firstly, I got a position of software engineer (intern) in NetCracker in department Solution Delivery. Secondly, we almost finished with the first release of Reshaka.Ru which is currently being tested. In addition, we moved to another room at the dormitory. I changed my roommates – now they all programmers and my friends too. Some time I will tell you more about all these events. But now let’s get down to business!

Read more of this post

JSF: How to create a chat with ajax


In our JSF project, which I am currently working on, there was a problem to create a chat in order to enable users to communicate. Today I’ll show you how to create a simple chat using JSF, PrimeFaces and ajax.

Main Idea

The idea is quite simple. Somewhere on the server (e.g. in the database) there are messages. On your web-page there is a message box in which all chat messages are displayed. Each second the web-page requests the server for new messages, and if there are any, adds them into message box.


  1. We have to ask server for new messages every second by invoking JSF managed bean’s method. How?
  2. Managed bean (server side) has to return new messages to the web-page. How?
  3. After page is loaded (ready) the message box should be updated and contain all recent chat messaged. How?


As it was said above, I am describing a solution for PrimeFaces library. But if you don’t (or unable to) use it, there might be a similar solution. See specifications of your particular library.

The first problem is very simple to solve. In PrimeFaces, there are different (at least two) components for invoking JSF managed bean’s method from the web page. You can use, for example, Poll component. But here I will use RemoteCommand. To solve the second problem we will use call-back parameters (the mechanism of passing data from the server to the client’s web-page). In my implementation we won’t need to solve the last problem. It will be solved automatically.

Let’s get the ball rolling!

Read more of this post