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Life-time learner's blog
Hello. This is my new English homework 🙂
1. Вам не нужно делать презентацию этого изобретения сегодня. Вы сможете сделать ее через неделю.
You don’t have to make a presentation of this invention. You will be able to make it next week (in a week).
2. Они, должно быть, знают много о нашем инновационном проекте, но я не уверен.
They might know a lot about our innovative project but I’m not sure.
3. Я не думаю, что вам следует расспрашивать незнакомого художника о его планах на будущее. Вы бы лучше пришли на его выставку.
I don’t think you should ask unfamiliar artist about his future plans. You had better visit his exhibition.
4. Возможно, они сейчас как раз обсуждают вопрос о начале производства инженерного оборудования. Они должны были подписать все документы вчера.
They might be discussing a question about start of production of engineering equipment. They must have signed all of the documents yesterday.
5. Не может быть, что ему сорок лет. Он выглядит гораздо моложе. Должно быть, он следит за своим здоровьем.
No way he is 40. (He can’t be 40 years old) He looks much younger. He must be taking care of his health.
6. Современный покупатель выбирает долговечные удобные для пользователя приборы, выпускаемые в различных вариациях цвета и формы.
Modern consumer chooses durable and usable appliances produced in different varieties of colour and shape.
7. Необходимо, чтобы достижения современной науки имели положительное влияние на жизнь людей. Кроме того, новые технологии должны быть экологически чистыми.
Advances of modern science must have a positive impact on people’s lives. More than that, new technologies must be environmentally friendly (eco-friendly).
8. Основной причиной успеха этой продукции является то, что она оправдывает свою стоимость и ее производство хорошо отлажено.
The main reason for success of the product is that it is a value for money and its production is streamlined (well established).
P.S. I’ll probably add some explanation grammar soon.
Last modified: 23 Feb 2012
Our today’s lesson is about Conditionals in English. In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. Languages use a variety of conditional constructions and verb forms (such as the conditional mood) to form such sentences. [wiki].
All conditional sentences can be divided into four different groups. (Of course, there are some other ways to classify different forms of conditional)
We use the so-called zero conditional or Real Conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact.
Consider the following situation: Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not. We can say: The ice melts if it is heated or: If we heat a piece of ice, it melts.
We can also use when or as soon as instead of if, for example: When I get up late, I miss my bus
We do not put comma before if / when / as soon as in such sentences. Using “if” suggests that something happens less frequently. Using “when” suggests that something happens regularly.
The verbs (V) can be in Present Continuous / Past Simple form. For example: If I went to a friend’s house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don’t do that anymore. This form is called Past Real Conditional and describes what you used to do in particular real-life situations. It suggests that your habits have changed and you do not usually do these things today.
We are talking about the future (that’s why this form of conditional is also called Future Real Conditional). We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen.
For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do? In this situation we can say: If it rains, I will not play tennis.
Sometimes, we use shall, can, or may instead of will, for example: If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight.
Both “if” and “when” are used in the Future Real Conditional, but the use is different from other Real Conditional forms. In the Future Real Conditional, “if” suggests that you do not know if something will happen or not. “When” suggests that something will definitely happen at some point; we are simply waiting for it to occur. Notice also that the Simple Future is not used in if-clauses or when-clauses.
The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you do not have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about winning in the future, like a dream. It’s not very real, but it’s still possible
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result. The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen. That’s why this form is called Present Unreal Conditional.
Only the word “if” is used with the Second Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. “When” cannot be used. Sometimes, we use should, could or might instead of would, for example: If I won a million dollars, I could stop working.
The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true. Consider the following situation. Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. In this situation we would say: If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a new car.
Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result.
The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now, that’s why it is called Past Unreal Conditional. Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have, for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
||~ 100 %||If the ice is heated, it melts|
||~ 50 %||If it rains tomorrow, I won’t play tennis.|
||< 10 %||If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t work.|
||0 %||If I had won the lottery last week, I would have bought a new car|
A stative verb is one which asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property (possibly in relation to its other arguments). Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; they have no duration and no distinguished endpoint. Verbs which are not stative are often called dynamic verbs. (Wikipedia)
There are plenty of articles on stative verbs on the Internet. I want to summarise a few articles.
At first, take a look at the video from engVid.com on stative verbs.
Original: English Grammar – Stative Verbs
This video by Ronnie is extremely enjoyable! I love it. Do you?
Secondly, check out the following video which I found on the Internet.
Original: Stative Verbs
To be honest, the second video is extremely boring! But anyway the article is very useful. That’s why I recommend that you look at the original post.
Some English verbs, which we call state, non-continuous, or stative verbs, aren’t normally used in continuous tenses (like the present continuous, or the future continuous). The most common ones:
like love hate want need prefer
know realise suppose mean understand believe remember
belong fit contain consist seem look (=seem)
Download PDF with the list of stative verbs and examples.
A verb which isn’t stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action.
Some verbs can be either stative or dynamic depending on the situation.
be is usually a stative verb, but when it is used in the continuous it means ‘behaving’ or ‘acting’
think (stative) = have an opinion
think (dynamic) = consider, have in my head
have (stative) = own
have (dynamic) = part of an expression
see (stative) = see with your eyes / understand
see (dynamic) = meet / have a relationship with
taste (stative) = has a certain taste
taste (dynamic) = the action of tasting
I hope this lesson on stative verbs is very useful. Thank you for visiting. Good luck with your English!
Howdy, dear readers.
At first, check out the video from engVid.com. In this lesson, Rebecca explains how the future tense is used in conversation.
There are four common ways to talk about future activities or plans.
Future Tense we use
Consider the following examples with future tense.
The expression to be going to means that the action is planned but not arranged. So, the phrase I am going to take a vocation, actually, means I decided to take a vocation (before time of speaking) but have not arranged it, yet.
For better comprehension have a look at the following examples.
Future activities and plans can be also expressed using Present Continuous (especially when activities involve two or more people). When we say I’m meeting my friend tomorrow it means that we have already decided to meet tomorrow and arranged it.
Future activities can be expressed even with Past Simple.
Here we are talking about scheduled actions.
I will do …
I’ll phone you later.
To be going to
I am going to do …
I’m going to phone you later.
I am doing …
Planned and arranged
She is arriving tomorrow at 10:00 pm.
I do …
The shop opens at 10 o’clock.
Thank you for visiting English Tech Blog. Good luck with your English.
Hello, English learners!
In today’s post we’ll talk about the rules of usage who/whoever and whom/whomever. The grammar is rather simple, but a lot of people find it difficult. We hope this article helps you.
1) [interrogative pronoun] what or which person or people who is that woman?
2) [relative pronoun] used to introduce a clause giving further information about a person or people previously mentioned.
Whom is used in formal or written English instead of `who’ when it is the object of a verb or preposition.
1) You use whom in questions when you ask about the name or identity of a person or group of people.
2) You use whom after certain words, especially verbs and adjectives, to introduce a clause where you talk about the name or identity of a person or a group of people.
3) You use whom at the beginning of a relative clause when specifying the person or group of people you are talking about or when giving more information about them.
Source: Oxford Dictionary.
Use he/him to decide which word (who or whom) to put. He => who, him => whom. For example:
1. Who broke the vase?
2. Whom should I go with?
3. Clare knows who the winner is already.
4. We want to know on whom the prank was pulled.
This one is a little bit more difficult. But the rule is almost the same. You should split the sentence into clauses. Find the clause with whoever/whomever. And try to change it using he/him instead.
For better understanding have a look at the following examples.
1. Whoever wins the lottery will become a millionaire.
2. Whomever you elect will serve a four-year term.
3. But: Whoever is elected will serve a four-year term.
4. Give it to whoever asks for it first
5. I will work on the project with whomever you suggest.
The rule of a thumb is that he/he = whoever, and he/him = whomever.
One more example:
6. Give the package to any person who comes to the door.
Speaking as a teacher, I get irritated when I see questions like this in an examination. I feel that it is a trick question. I hope it was not in an exam for those learning English as a Second language.
It is grammatically correct to say whomever but I doubt is one in a thousand would say it. Most people would say whoever.
There is an old joke passed around by teachers of grammar. Saint Peter in heaven heard a knock on the door. “Whose there?” he asked. “It is I,” was the reply. “Heck!” said Saint Peter. “Another one of those damn grammar teachers.”
Grammatically, it is correct to say, “It is I.” But not one in a thousand says it. Most say, “It’s me.”
Link to the discussion: http://www.englishforums.com/English/WhoeverVsWhomever/cxcp/post.htm
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